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This page is meant to serve as a reference for places where Hector has been featured. This list will be updated with time.

Hector Publications

There are three documentation manuscripts for Hector.

Hector v1

Hartin, C. A., Patel, P., Schwarber, A., Link, R. P., and Bond-Lamberty, B. P. (2015). A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 939–955.

The original manuscript for Hector v1.0 was published in 2015. Hector is an open-source, object-oriented simple global carbon cycle model. The model takes in CO\(_2\) and non-CO\(_2\) emissions (e.g., CH\(_4\), N\(_2\)O), converting emissions to concentrations where needed, and calculates the global radiative forcing and the global mean temperature change

Hector v1.1

Hartin, C. A., Bond-Lamberty, B. P., Patel, P., and Mundra, A. (2016). Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities, Biogeosciences, 13, 4329 – 4342.

Hector v1.1 contains an updated ocean temperature algorithm to better match the CMIP5 mean.

Hector v2.0

Vega-Westhoff, B., Sriver, R. L., Hartin, C. A., Wong, T. E., & Keller, K. (2019). Impacts of observational constraints related to sea level on estimates of climate sensitivity. Earth’s Future, 7, 677– 690.

Hector v2.0 incorporates a one-dimensional diffusive heat and energy balance model called DOECLIM and a global sea level module called BRICK.

Hector in Literature

Journal articles

Below are journal articles that use or reference Hector.

Climate module disparities explain inconsistent estimates of the social cost of carbon in integrated assessment models

Wang, Tianpeng, Fei Teng, Xu Deng, and Jun Xie. 2022. “Climate Module Disparities Explain Inconsistent Estimates of the Social Cost of Carbon in Integrated Assessment Models.” One Earth 5 (7): 767–78.

A permafrost implementation in the simple carbon-climate model Hector v.2.3pf

Woodard, D. L., Shiklomanov, A. N., Kravitz, B., Hartin, C., Bond-Lamberty, B. (2021). A permafrost implementation in the simple carbon-climate model Hector v.2.3pf. Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4751–4767. ttps://

This study adds permafrost into Hector as a separate land carbon pool which decomposes into CH\(_4\) and CO\(_2\) when thawed. The thaw rate is controlled by region-specific air temperature increases.

The role of climate sensitivity in upper-tail sea level rise projections

Vega‐Westhoff, B., Sriver, R. L., Hartin, C., Wong, T. E., & Keller, K. (2020). The role of climate sensitivity in upper‐tail sea level rise projections. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL085792.

This study uses Hector-BRICK to investigate the effects of Earth’s equilibrium climate sensitivity, or long-term temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO\(_2\), on sea-level rise with a focus on the high-impact upper tail.

Calibrating simple climate models to individual Earth System Models: Lessons learned from calibrating Hector

Dorheim, K., Link, R., Hartin, C., Kravitz, B., & Snyder, A. (2020). Calibrating simple climate models to individual Earth system models: Lessons learned from calibrating Hector. Earth and Space Science, 7, e2019EA000980. >

In this article, the authors use Hector v2.5.0 to emulate the multiforcing historical and RCP scenario output for 31 concentration and seven emissions-driven Earth System Models.

Evaluating climate emulation: fundamental impulse testing of simple climate models

Schwarber, A. K., Smith, S. J., Hartin, C. A., Vega-Westhoff, B. A., and Sriver, R. (2019). Evaluating climate emulation: fundamental impulse testing of simple climate models, Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 729–739.

The authors use fundamental impulse tests of CO\(_2\), CH\(_4\), and black carbon to understand the fundamental gas cycle and climate system responses of comprehensive and idealized simple climate models.

RCMIP Project

The Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project (RCMIP) is the first systematic intercomparison project for reduced-complexity climate models (RCM) and provides a standard protocol for one-line models and simple and reduced-complexity models to perform experiments from a common set of assumptions. In short, this creates a standardized test of RCMs to reproduce Earth System Model projections. Hector is one such model being used in RCMIP.

RCMIP Phase 1 focuses on RCMs’ global mean temperature responses while RCMIP Phase 2 explores the extent to which different RCMs can be calibrated to reproduce knowledge from specialized research communities.

Other Places

Mimi Framework

MIMI is a Julia package for integrated assessment models. MimiHECTOR is a partial implementation of Hector in Julia.
Github found here.


pyhector is a Python interface for Hector. Here is a paper describing pyhector by Sven N Wilner, Corrine Hartin, and Robert Gieseke.
Github found here.


HectorUI is an R Shiny web interface designed to be user-friendly and to provide an alternative to the command line for running Hector. This allows users who may not be fluent in C++ or R to explore model scenarios and outputs.

The HectorUI interface can be found here.

The HectorUI paper can be found here

Evanoff J.E., Vernon, C.R., Waldhoff, S.T., Snyder, A. C., and Hartin, C.A. (2020). “hectorui: A web-based interactive scenario builder and visualization application for the Hector climate model.” The Journal of Open Source Software 5, no. 56:Article No. 2782. PNNL-SA-156861.

A YouTube overview of HectorUI by Stephanie Pennington can be found here.