GCAM v3.2 Documentation: GCAM Solver

Documentation for GCAM
The Global Change Analysis Model

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GCAM Solver

GCAM has several solver algorithms at its disposal. The solver algorithms can be combined so that several of them are used in sequence. The mix of algorithms can be varied from one model timestep to the next and can be customized for markets that require special treatment. Additionally, each solver algorithm has several adjustable parameters that are user configurable. These configuration options are specified in the solver configuration file.

Solver Algorithms

Bisection Solver


The bisection solver is a multidimensional generalization of of one-dimensional bisection methods. The one-dimensional methods work by first establishing a bracket, identified by a change of sign in \(f(x)\), around the solution. At each iteration \(f(x)\) is evaluated at the midpoint of the bracket interval, and the sign of the result tells us which half of the interval contains the solution. The endpoints of the bracket are adjusted to the newly-identified interval, and the iterations continue until the interval is small enough that we have effectively isolated the solution.

For a system of equations in multiple dimensions, it is generally not possible to construct a rigorous bracket around a solution. Even if we find two points for which all of the equations in the system have opposite sign, there is no guarantee that a solution exists somewhere on the line connecting the two points. The reason why is that the solution to the equation \(\vec F(\vec x) = 0\) is a single point \(\vec x_0\) where all components of \(\vec F\) are simultaneously zero. As we move from one of our putative bracket points to the other the overwhelming likelihood is that the components of \(\vec F\) will change sign at different places along the path, none of which will be the solution we seek. Thus, in general, bracketing and bisection is not a viable strategy for solving a system of equations.

Despite this shortcoming, bisection can often be used to get the solver into the general vicinity of the solution, from which the Newton-Raphson solver can easily find it. For initial guesses far from the solution, bisection can often be faster than more sophisticated solution techniques. Moreover, bisection places no conditions on the Jacobian matrix, making it useful for jostling the solver out of singular regions. These two properties make bisection a useful technique for getting a solution started, before finishing with another technique.


Newton-Raphson Solver


The Newton-Raphson Solver is a globally convergent iterative method based on the one in Numerical Recipes, section 9.71. In each iteration we solve the equation

\[J(\vec x) \cdot \delta \vec x = -\vec F(\vec x) \;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; (1)\]

for a correction step \(\delta \vec x\), where \(J\) is the Jacobian matrix of first derivatives of \(\vec F\). After each iteration we replace \(\vec x\) with \(\vec x + \delta \vec x\) and iterate until \(\vec F\) is sufficiently small.

The procedure just described will often fail to converge when \(\vec x\) is far from its solution value. This problem is particularly evident in functions that have rapidly changing or discontinuous derivatives and in functions where the Jacobian matrix is nearly singular. In these situations, equation (1) attempts to extrapolate local information about the gradient of the function to distant regions where it is invalid. Such a step can easily land the solver in an unusual region of the parameter space (i.e., a region for which the model is ill-behaved or undefined), and when this happens the algorithm rarely recovers.

We mitigate these problems by monitoring \(f = \|\vec F\|\) and backtracking along the direction of \(\delta \vec x\) when an ordinary Newton-Raphson step causes \(f\) to increase. This allows the solver to follow the Newton step far enough to progress toward the desired solution, while rejecting large steps that take us further away from it. Computationally we implement this procedure by scaling the Newton-Raphson step by a factor \(\lambda \leq 1\) . We start each iteration with \(\lambda = 1\) and evaluate \(f\) . If it has failed to decrease sufficiently, we decrease \(\lambda\) until we obtain an acceptable step. The heuristic for accepting a step and the procedure for decreasing \(\lambda\) are described in Numerical Recipes.1


The backtracking procedure greatly enhances the convergence properties of the solver over the basic Newton-Raphson procedure, but the solver will still fail under some circumstances. The most commonly occurring such circumstance is a singular Jacobian caused by one or more prices having no impact on the excess demand in any of the solved markets. In GCAM this situation occurs predictably at high and low price extremes. Many of the input supply and demand functions saturate in extreme price regimes, leading to zero derivatives. GCAM currently deals with this problem by excluding markets with obvious price extremes from the Newton-Raphson solver and using other solver algorithms on them until their prices come into the normal price domain. In the long run the problem could also be addressed by engineering supply and demand inputs such that they retain a slight slope even at price extremes.


Solver Configuration File

The solver configuration, including the choice of solver or solvers to use and settable solver parameters, is selected in the solver configuration file. This file is specified in the input Configuration file using a line of the form:

<Value name="solver_config">../input/solution/cal_solver_config.xml</Value>


The solver configuration file comprises a series of blocks that specify the configuration of the solver to use in each period of the model run. For example:
 <user-configurable-solver year="2005">

The first line indicates that this is the configuration to be used in 2005. If the same solver configuration is to be used for all subsequent years, we can add the “fillout” parameter:

 <user-configurable-solver year="2010" fillout="1">

The first few lines of the configuration specify General Solver Parameters, which apply to all solver components. For the most part, these parameters dictate things like stopping conditions, which apply to all of the solver components that will be used.

Following the general parameters are one or more blocks that specify solver components, which direct the solver to run particular solution algorithms. For example:
           <solution-info-filter>solvable-nr || (market-type="Tax" &amp;&amp; solvable)</solution-info-filter>

The first few lines specify parameters that are specific to this particular solver component. The solution-info-filter line gives a predicate for determining which markets the component will attempt to solve. This filter allows us to exclude from a solver component markets that are likely to cause that component to fail (for example, markets that make the Jacobian matrix singular for the Newton-Raphson solver) or whose solution is unlikely to be improved by the component.

The algorithms will be run consecutively in the order listed in the configuration file. When all have been run, the termination criteria will be checked. The sequence of components will be repeated until either the model is solved or the maximum number of model evaluations has been exceeded.

General Solver Parameters

Solution-info-filter Predicates

The predicates available to filter markets are:

Predicates can be combined with the logical operators and (&&) (NB: Since the & character is reserved in XML, it must be written as &amp;amp;), or (||), and not (!) to form compound predicates. These conjunctions can be grouped with parentheses.

For example:

 <solution-info-filter>solvable-nr || (market-type="Tax" &amp;amp;&amp;amp; solvable)</solution-info-filter>


 <solution-info-filter>unsolved &amp;amp;&amp;amp; solvable &amp;amp;&amp;amp; 
      !(market-name="globalcrude oil" || market-name="globalnatural gas" || market-name="globalcoal") </solution-info-filter>

The first of these accept all solvable-nr markets and all solvable tax markets (even if they don’t meet the NR requirements). The second would exclude the global crude oil, natural gas, and coal markets and accept all other solvable markets that are not yet solved.

Model Abstraction Layer

For newer solver algorithms, the GCAM solver is decoupled from the rest of the GCAM model by an abstraction layer that presents the model to the solver as a vector function of a single vector argument: \(\vec y = \vec F(\vec x)\) . Both vectors have length equal to the number of solved markets. The input vector \(\vec x\) is the log of the prices (or price-analogs, for special markets that redefine the price method). The output vector \(\vec y\) is the log of the relative excess demand (or analog, for markets that redefine it), \(\vec y = \log(D/S)\) .

The solver is mostly unaware of the details of how the input vector is processed for use in the model or how the model is invoked. The sole exception is the partial method, which allows the solver to signal that it is computing a partial derivative. This allows the abstraction layer to optimize the model computation by skipping the calculation of values that have not changed. It does not affect the results returned.

The abstraction layer takes care of all of the manipulations that have to happen to get the model to run with a set of input prices. In order, these are:

This arrangement greatly simplifies the development of solver algorithms and eliminates redundant code that was formerly duplicated in each algorithm. Some older algorithms bypass the abstraction layer and perform these tasks directly. Over time, these solvers will be phased out and replaced with versions that call the model through the abstraction layer.


Press, W., et al (1992), Numerical Recipes in C, Second ed., Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521431085