# GCAM v4.4 Documentation: GCAM Fusion users guide

Documentation for GCAM
The Global Change Assessment Model

View the Project on GitHub JGCRI/gcam-doc

# GCAM Fusion users guide

Here we discuss the GCAM Fusion API modelers tools to perform two way coupling with a running GCAM simulation. We start with an introduction then move on to some more in-depth documentation some of which may only be relevant for someone who is interested in modifying or adding new components to GCAM itself.

Note: the discussion that follows is aimed at an audience proficient with C++.

## Background

GCAM is a object oriented model using a hierarchical structure to represent the various sectors and activities that it models. This is convenient for setting up the abstractions and relationships with in the model; however it does not make it easy or convenient to get data in and out of the model. We generally set inputs data once at the start of the model by parsing the XML input files.  We retrieve data mostly through the use of custom visitors at the end of a scenario, or after the run has completed via an XML database.

These limitations have been a hinderance for modelers who would like to implement one-way or two-way coupling bwteen their own model and GCAM, in which data from the coupled models is pushed into GCAM from a high level so as to dynamically incorporate feedbacks simulation moves forward through time.

The goal for GCAM Fusion is to be able to control the internal parameters of GCAM from a high level. However, most users will not be familar with GCAM object and member variable names. They are usually familiar with the XML tag names used in the input/output which typically map directly on to those internal variables. In addition many of our users have grown accustomed to searching the XML via simple XPath queries that look like: /scenario[@name='Reference']//sector[@name='electricity]//share-weight[@year <= 2050]. Thus GCAM Fusion is a query engine for GCAM with a query syntax somewhat like XPath using the same data names as the XML input tags. Users can then use the search results as they like including changing the value of the results.

## Providing a hook to calling feedbacks

Currently we are providing the following hooks for users to call their feedbacks:

• Just before a simulation period of GCAM begins its solution process.
• After a simulation period of GCAM has solved and the hector climate model has been called.

Limiting access to the API in this way is a key part of our strategy for keeping the model structure manageable. Arbitrary updates to model internals can happen only at designated times. This prevents every model object from becoming, in effect, a global variable.

You create a feedback calculation by creating a “feedback object”, which is an instance of a class that implements IModelFeedbackCalc interface. The key functions in the interface are

• calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod: A callback function that will be called at the start of a model period.

• calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod: A callback function that will be called at the end of a model period.

The full definition of IModelFeedbackCalc is:

/*!
* \ingroup Objects
* \brief This provides the interface for classes which will provide feedback to
*        model parameters as calculated based upon model results as the simulation
*        moves forward through the model years.
* \details This interface will provide two hooks to notify when to calculate feedbacks:
*          Before a new model period is about to start and after a model period has
*          has finished solving and climate model results for the period are available.
*          A references to the Scenario and IClimateModel will be provided however
*          it is implied that the subclasses of this interface will utilize the
*          GCAM Fusion capabilities to gain access to the internal model state
*          necessary to compute and/or push feedbacks into GCAM.
* \warning MAGICC does not currently run between periods so these feedbacks may
*          not work correctly if climate results are needed and MAGICC is configured
*          as the climate model.
*
* \author Pralit Patel
*/
class IModelFeedbackCalc : public INamed,
public IParsable,
public IRoundTrippable,
private boost::noncopyable
{
public:
virtual ~IModelFeedbackCalc() { }

/*!
* \brief A call back to indicate that a new simulation period is about to begin.
* \details Note that climate model results will not yet be available for the current.
*          period however results up to where the year where the model left off
*          from the prior model year should still be available.
* \param aScenario The Scenario object that contains the full state of the currently
*                  running model.
* \param IClimateModel The climate model instance which can be queried for climate
*                      results.
* \param aPeriod The model period that is about to begin calculation.
*/
virtual void calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod( Scenario* aScenario, const IClimateModel* aClimateModel, const int aPeriod ) = 0;

/*!
* \brief A call back to indicate that a simulation period has ended and the climate
*        model has been run updated through this period.
* \param aScenario The Scenario object that contains the full state of the currently
*                  running model.
* \param IClimateModel The climate model instance which can be queried for climate
*                      results.
* \param aPeriod The model period that just finished it's calculation.
*/
virtual void calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod( Scenario* aScenario, const IClimateModel* aClimateModel, const int aPeriod ) = 0;
};


## An Introduction Using an Illustrative Example

In order to explain how to use the GCAM Fusion capabilities let’s jump right into it with an illustrative feedback example. In this example we will:

• Query GCAM to capture key variables in the simulation,
• Use those results to calculate an impact that we would like to affect the simluation moving forward, and
• Adjust some GCAM parameter(s) to reflect the impact.

Such a usage pattern will likely be common. More specifically, in this example we will query for global CO2 emissions, calculate feedbacks to heating and cooling degree days using a simplistic linear relationsip, and finally change the heating and cooling degree days with in GCAM for the next simulation period.

To start we will create a new class which implements the feedback interface mentioned above.

#include "containers/include/imodel_feedback_calc.h"

/*!
* \ingroup Objects
* \brief Calc feed back to heating and cooling degree days.
* \details Test implementation.
*
* \author Pralit Patel
*/
class DegreeDaysFeedback : public IModelFeedbackCalc
{
public:
DegreeDaysFeedback();
virtual ~DegreeDaysFeedback();

static const std::string& getXMLNameStatic();

// INamed methods
virtual const std::string& getName() const;

// IParsable methods
virtual bool XMLParse( const xercesc::DOMNode* aNode );

// IRoundTrippable methods
virtual void toInputXML( std::ostream& aOut, Tabs* aTabs ) const;

// IModelFeedbackCalc methods
virtual void calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod( Scenario* aScenario, const
IClimateModel* aClimateModel, const int aPeriod );

virtual void calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod( Scenario* aScenario, const
IClimateModel* aClimateModel, const int aPeriod );

protected:
//! The name of this feedback
std::string mName;

//! A HDD feedback coefficient of sorts
double mHDDCoef;

//! A CDD feedback coefficient of sorts
double mCDDCoef;

//! The base year emissions value to calculate feedback from
double mBaseYearValue;
};


You will notice that we have also included the XML parsing hooks that GCAM uses to initialize its components such as XMLParse and toInputXML. These functions allow us to activate our feedback by including them in an XML add-on file

The source code that goes with this declaration will then look like the following skeleton:

#include "util/base/include/definitions.h"
#include <cassert>
#include <vector>

#include "containers/include/degree_days_feedback.h"
#include "util/base/include/xml_helper.h"
#include "containers/include/scenario.h"
#include "util/base/include/model_time.h"

using namespace std;
using namespace xercesc;

DegreeDaysFeedback::DegreeDaysFeedback()
:mHDDCoef( 0 ),
mCDDCoef( 0 ),
mBaseYearValue( 0 )
{
}

DegreeDaysFeedback::~DegreeDaysFeedback() {
}

const string& DegreeDaysFeedback::getXMLNameStatic() {
// This is the string you will use to refer to this object
// in input files.
const static string XML_NAME = "degree-day-feedback";
return XML_NAME;
}

const string& DegreeDaysFeedback::getName() const {
return mName;
}

bool DegreeDaysFeedback::XMLParse( const DOMNode* aNode ) {
// Code to read the feedback object from XML inputs
}

void DegreeDaysFeedback::toInputXML( ostream& aOut, Tabs* aTabs ) const {
// Code to write the object's configuration as XML
// (This is used when saving a configuration to be reread later)
}

void DegreeDaysFeedback::calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod( Scenario* aSceanrio,
const IClimateModel* aClimateModel,
const int aPeriod )
{
// code that gets called just before a period will begin to solve
}

void DegreeDaysFeedback::calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod( Scenario* aScenario,
const IClimateModel* aClimateModel,
const int aPeriod )
{
// code that gets called after a period is done solving,
}


The two XML functions allow us to set up our feedback object from GCAM XML input files. Here is how they are defined:

bool DegreeDaysFeedback::XMLParse( const DOMNode* aNode ) {
/*! \pre Make sure we were passed a valid node. */
assert( aNode );

// get the name attribute.
mName = XMLHelper<string>::getAttr( aNode, XMLHelper<void>::name() );

// get all child nodes.
DOMNodeList* nodeList = aNode->getChildNodes();

// loop through the child nodes.
for( unsigned int i = 0; i < nodeList->getLength(); i++ ){
DOMNode* curr = nodeList->item( i );
string nodeName = XMLHelper<string>::safeTranscode( curr->getNodeName() );

if( nodeName == XMLHelper<void>::text() ) {
continue;
}
else if( nodeName == "hdd-coef" ) {
mHDDCoef = XMLHelper<double>::getValue( curr );
}
else if( nodeName == "cdd-coef" ) {
mCDDCoef = XMLHelper<double>::getValue( curr );
}
else {
ILogger& mainLog = ILogger::getLogger( "main_log" );
mainLog.setLevel( ILogger::ERROR );
mainLog << "Unknown element " << nodeName << " encountered while parsing " << getXMLNameStatic() << endl;
}
}

return true;
}

void DegreeDaysFeedback::toInputXML( ostream& aOut, Tabs* aTabs ) const {
XMLWriteOpeningTag( getXMLNameStatic(), aOut, aTabs );

XMLWriteElement( mHDDCoef, "hdd-coef", aOut, aTabs );
XMLWriteElement( mCDDCoef, "cdd-coef", aOut, aTabs );

XMLWriteClosingTag( getXMLNameStatic(), aOut, aTabs );
}



With these functions in place, you will be able to activate the feedbacks by including an XML add-on file in your GCAM configuration. Including the add-on file will cause the feedback object to be created and added to the scenario’s list of feedbacks. The calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod and calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod methods will then be run automatically at the beginning and end of each GCAM time step. The add-on file would contain the following XML:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<scenario>
<degree-day-feedback>
<!-- The numerical values for the coefficients here are just examples -->
<hdd-coef>23</hdd-coef>
<cdd-coef>42</cdd-coef>
</degree-day-feedback>
</scenario>


Next we will add in some calls to GCAM Fusion to query for the global CO2 emissions from the model. You will need to include the following header files into your .cpp file:

#include "util/base/include/gcam_fusion.hpp"
#include "util/base/include/gcam_data_containers.h"


Be aware that including GCAMFusion essentially includes the entire model.  This is because it needs to be able to search and traverse potentially any object in the model.  This will lead to a long compile time for any source file that includes it. Therefore, you should try to isolate code that uses these capabilities in a small number of fusion-aware translation units.

Next, you will need an object that will handle the results of the search. This object can be of any type, since the GCAMFusion class is templated. The only requirement is that the object must provide the templated functions that will be called on data found by the search. The functions required will depend on what combination of the three event types supported by GCAM Fusion you are using. The event types eare explained below. If you aren’t using an event type, you can omit its processing function.

struct GatherEmiss {
// a variable to keep the sum
double mEmiss = 0;

// call back methods for GCAMFusion
// called if the fourth template argument to GCAMFusion is true
template<typename T>
void processData( T& aData );

// call back methods for GCAMFusion
// called if the second templated argument to GCAMFusion is true
// we won't be using it in this example.
//template<typename T>
//void pushFilterStep( const DataType& aData );

// call back methods for GCAMFusion
// called if the third templated argument to GCAMFusion is true
// we won't be using it in this example.
//template<typename T>
//void popFilterStep( const DataType& aData );
};


We now have everything we need to use the GCAM Fusion interface. The GCAMFusion object takes four template parameters:

• The handler object that we just defined.
• A boolean flag to indicate whether the handler will process the start of each step taken into a CONTAINER object (default is false).
• A boolean flag to indicate whether the handler will process stepping out of a CONTAINER object (default is false).
• A boolean flag to indicate whether the handler will process the data being found (default is true).

The last flag (the one that defaults to true) is the most common use case, and it’s the only one we will use in this example.

The GCAMFusion object constructor takes two arguments:

• A vector of FilterSteps
• An instance of an object that can handle the results of the search

Then we can call GCAM Fusion with a search string and have it use the above struct to process the results:

void DegreeDaysFeedback::calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod( Scenario* aScenario, const IClimateModel* aClimateModel,
const int aPeriod )
{
vector<FilterStep*> emissFilterSteps = parseFilterString( "world/region/sector/subsector/technology/period[YearFilter,IntLessThanEq,"+
modeltime->getper_to_yr( aPeriod )+"]/ghg[NamedFilter,StringEquals,CO2]" );
// notice we can search by a year by using the YearFilter or by a GCAM model period by just using
// an IndexFilter
emissFilterSteps.push_back( new FilterStep( "emissions", new IndexFilter( new IntEquals( aPeriod ) ) ) );
GatherEmiss gatherEmissProc;
// note we are just using the default template flags here: just process data, not the steps
GCAMFusion<GatherEmiss> gatherEmiss( gatherEmissProc, emissFilterSteps );
// We must provide an object as the context to start the search, in this case we
// start at the top with the Scenario object.
gatherEmiss.startFilter( aScenario );
// Results are not returned and instead the processData callback function of the
// GatherEmiss class is called when a matching emissions value is found.

// We can then retrieve the result to use it in our impact calculations
double currGlobalEmiss = gatherEmissProc.mEmiss;
cout << "Curr global emissions are " << currGlobalEmiss << " in period " << aPeriod << endl;
}


As you can see above the FilterSteps can be created manually or by using the utility parseFilterString to conveniently generate it for you by using a syntax similar (but not precisely identical) to XPath. Each filter step may contain a data name and a filter . Each filter contains a predicate and the predicate value.

As mentioned above, when GCAMFusion finds a result that matches the search it will call processData and the user can get or set the value as appropriate for their needs:

template<typename T>
void GatherEmiss::processData( T& aData ) {
assert( false );
}
template<>
void GatherEmiss::processData<Value>( Value& aData ) {
}


GCAMFusion cannot know what the type of the result of the search is going to be ahead of time.  Searches are made at runtime while the code to handle the results are generated at compile time.  This is the reason the processData method must be templated.  Therefore, we create a template specialization for the type we are expecting to be returned from our search (i.e., based on our prior knowledge of the model structure). In this case we expect the appropriate type to be a Value class, so we provide a specialization for that type. If everything is working correctly, we shouldn’t get any other type. If we do, then we’ve made a mistake in setting up the system. Therefore, in the generic template, which will be instantiated for any other types that might be returned by the search, we assert that the code should never get there during runtime. If for some reason it does, then the run will abort with an error.

Next we do something with our results. To keep things simple for illustrative purposes, we’ll adjust degree days by a scale factor, but you could in principle do anything here, including running another model and passing it the data you just received.

    if( aPeriod == modeltime->getFinalCalibrationPeriod() ) {
// just store the base year value
mBaseYearValue = currGlobalEmiss;
}
// scale heating and cooling degree days for the next period
mCurrDDScaler = 1.0 / ( currGlobalEmiss / mBaseYearValue ) * mHDDCoef;


Finally we can query for the appropriate GCAM paramaters again but this time changing the value. You will notice that really everything works the same as when we were collecting the CO2 emissions. The data passed to processData is passed by reference to the actual parameter that lives in the GCAM objects and is not const so we are free to change it as we please. These are the queries for building heating and cooling services:

    // Note the actual services are "resid heating" or "comm cooling", etc so we
// use regular expression partial matching so we do not have to spell it out.
vector<FilterStep*> ddFilterSteps = parseFilterString( "world/region/consumer/nodeInput/nodeInput/nodeInput[NamedFilter,StringRegexMatches,heating]" );
ddFilterSteps.push_back( new FilterStep( "degree-days", new IndexFilter( new IntEquals( aPeriod + 1 ) ) ) );
GCAMFusion<DegreeDaysFeedback> scaleHDD( *this, ddFilterSteps );
scaleHDD.startFilter( aScenario );

mCurrDDScaler = ( currGlobalEmiss / mBaseYearValue ) * mCDDCoef;
// only updating the service name filter of our query, we can keep the rest of it the same
delete ddFilterSteps[ ddFilterSteps.size() - 2 ];
ddFilterSteps[ ddFilterSteps.size() - 2 ] = new FilterStep( "nodeInput", new NamedFilter( new StringRegexMatches( "cooling" ) ) );
GCAMFusion<DegreeDaysFeedback, true> scaleCDD( *this, ddFilterSteps );
scaleCDD.startFilter( aScenario );

// note we are still responsible for the memory we allocate even if it was done in the parseFilterString utility
for( auto filterStep : ddFilterSteps ) {
delete filterStep;
}


And here are the call backs that set the scaled degree days in those sectors:

template<typename T>
void DegreeDaysFeedback::processData( T& aData ) {
assert( false );
}
template<>
void DegreeDaysFeedback::processData<Value>( Value& aData ) {
// We are manipulating aData which is referenced back to the actual GCAM objects
}

void DegreeDaysFeedback::pushFilterStep( INamed* const& aContainer ) {
std::cout << "Saw step " << aContainer->getName() << std::endl;
}

template<typename T>
typename boost::disable_if<
boost::is_base_of<INamed, typename boost::remove_pointer<T>::type>,
void>::type DegreeDaysFeedback::pushFilterStep( const T& aContainer ) {
std::cout << "Saw unknown " << typeid( T ).name() << std::endl;
}


A couple things to note, sometimes it is easier to just use your feedback object to process callbacks from GCAM Fusion. It isn’t required to use a helper struct. Your class/struct does not need to implement any interface or the like, just provide the processData, etc callback methods.

I have also included and configured the call back for pushFilterStep just for example. In addition you will notice the use of disable_if and some uses of boost’s (using the std library should work just fine too) type traits such as is_base_of. The purpose is to demonstrate how to control which objects we are intereasted in our pushFilterStep call back. In this example we have the compiler generate one version for any object for which we can call ->getName() on (implements the INamed interface) and another for types which do not.

## Linking to Other Models

Often you want to use the data you retrieve using the GCAM Fusion interface as input to another model. Likewise, you may want to return the results of running that model to GCAM as feedbacks. To do these things you will have to link your model to GCAM. There are three options for doing this.

### Run your model as a stand-alone program and communicate with GCAM via IPC

This method is a little clunky, but it is probably the easiest to get up and running in most cases. You will run your model as a stand-alone process, and you will communicate with GCAM via interprocess communication (IPC).

The easiest form of IPC to get up and running is the named pipe. (The linked article is for Linux, but named pipes work the same on Mac OS X as they do on Linux.) The concept here is that you will have set up a named pipe for each communication stream between GCAM and your model. These communication streams are unidirectional, so for two way communication you will always need at least two. Once the pipes are set up you can read and write to them as if they were files. Your model should expect to receive data from GCAM after each GCAM time step on the input pipe, and it should write its data on the output pipe. You will also need to establish conventions for signaling in-band when the data for a single time step is finished, and when a model is exiting.

On the GCAM side, you will put all of the code to communicate with your model in one of the calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod or calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod methods associated with a feedback object, as described in the previous section. The code in the method should collect the data you want from GCAM objects, format it as required by your model, and write it to the named pipe your code is using for input. Then you will want to read your model’s response on the pipe your code is using for output. This operation will block until your model provides its response.

Next, you must recompile GCAM including your new feedback object and add its XML add-on file to your GCAM configuration. Then, to perform a run, execute both models (e.g., from two terminal windows). The models should communicate with one another whenever they have data to send, and block whenever they are waiting for the other model to provide data they are expecting.

The advantage of this method is that it can be set up with relatively little modification to either model’s software. The disadvantage is that one must manage the communication between the models carefully to avoid deadlock, a situation in which both processes are simultaneously stopped waiting for input from the other process.

### Build your model as a library and have GCAM call it

To use this option you will take the object files produced by compiling your model, and collect them into a library. Building libraries works a differently depending on what operating system you are using. On unix-like operating systems, including OS X, you can create them using the ar command. When you build this library, make sure you leave out the main() function from your program. You will be using GCAM’s main(), and trying to build a program with two mains will cause an error.

Once you have your library you will add that to the list of libraries that GCAM links to. Once you have done this, any functions in your model will be callable from GCAM. You will probably have two types of functions you will want to call: functions to initialize your model and functions to run your model components. Initialization functions can be called from GCAM’s main. Functions to run your model’s components should be called from the methods of GCAM feedback objects, either calcFeedbacksBeforePeriod or calcFeedbacksAfterPeriod, as appropriate. When these callbacks run they will have access to the data returned by filters and can provide them to your model. Similarly, data returned by your model can be set into objects returned by the filter step. Once you have written the necessary feedback objects you can recompile GCAM, and the linked models should be ready to run.

The advantage of this method is that if your model already supports accepting data from other models, you will be able to use it with little or no modification. Your model will not need any particular knowledge of GCAM’s internal structure and might even be indifferent to whether it is getting data from GCAM or from some other source. The disadvantage of this method is that it requires you to make some changes to GCAM, particularly where initializing your model is concerend.

This is the method used to implement the one-way coupling between GCAM and Hector, so looking at that model may provide some guidance on how to proceed. However, one difference between Hector and other models is that Hector predates the GCAM Fusion interface. Therefore, instead of being called from a filter object, Hector is called from a hook built into GCAM specifically for that purpose. Future model coupling will take place through GCAM Fusion, eliminating the need for custom hooks.

### Have your model call GCAM functions provided in libgcam.

This option is the inverse of the previous one. Instead of building your model as a library, you link your model to the libgcam.a library created when GCAM is built. All of GCAM’s functions will be available to be called from your model. You will need to call GCAM initialization functions to set up the model structure. After that, the Scenario::run() method will allow you to run individual time periods in the scenario. You can call Scenario::run() at any point in your model where it makes sense to do so; you can even run a period multiple times with different feedbacks from your model in each evaluation, if doing so is useful in the problem you are trying to solve.

Using this method, you will not need to create a feedback object. Instead, you can create a handler object and use it to call the GCAM Fusion interface directly from anywhere in your code. You can create multiple handlers and multiple filters and use them as required to get or set data from GCAM.

This method gives you a lot more control over how and when GCAM runs than other methods. It is also the best method for coupling to models that have very complex setup procedures, since it avoids having to replicate the setup within GCAM. The main disadvantage to this method is that it requires a lot of GCAM-specific modifications to your model. These modifications will have to be disabled to use your model in stand-alone mode or to couple to another model.

## Intended Use of GCAM Fusion

Note that GCAM Fusion gives the users full access to all the internal parameters of GCAM for better or for worse. Just because you are able to change these values doesn’t mean GCAM will be able to operate normally when doing so. Therefore we only reccommend using GCAM Fusion inside of the IModelFeedback methods. Making feedbacks during the solution of a model period would require additional dependencies and linkages to ensure proper solution and GCAM Fusion would entirely circumvent those procedures. As a rule of thumb adjusting the same model perameters which are parsed in GCAM XML input files should be fine to modify. It should not be used to curcimvent normal object orientened principals or designs. Object encapsulation allows us to ensure some level of consistency.

To be clear there are no sofware limitation imposed on the use of GCAM Fusion however code proposed for inclusion into the Core GCAM model may be rejected due to improper / abuse of the capabilities as it will hinder the long term maintainability of the model.

## Some Documentation for Filter Steps

### FilterStep objects

A FilterStep is the object that GCAMFusion uses to search a single GCAM container’s data vector.  It can optionally specify a data name to match which is compared against the Data::mDataName.  If the data name in the FilterStep is empty it is assumed to match any data name.

The other optional parameter is a Filter. Filter objects are valid for search targets that are containers for other objects. Such containers are indicated with the ARRAY or CONTAINER flag. If specified, a filter can be used to select any single element of the matched container.  If no filter is specified, it is assumed to be NoFilter, which selects the entire container.  Note that if a Filter other than NoFilter is set, and the matched object is not a container (i.e., has the SIMPLE flag, then the match will be rejected even if the data name matches.

In addition if no data name and no filter is set then not only does this FilterStep match all data but it also enables special “descendant step” traversal behavior in GCAMFusion where the next FilterStep can be matched zero or more containers down.  This is analogous to the // operator in XPath queries. For example, if a ‘sector’ object has ‘subsector’ children, which in turn have ‘technology’ children of their own, then sector//share-weight will find data named ‘share-weight’ at both the subector and technology levels. It would also find a share-weight object contained in the sector itself if there were any, but in this example there are no such matches; share weights are only defined for subsectors and technologies.

### Filter objects

A Filter object allows GCAMFusion to select a subset of a data object that is a container for other objects. The available Filters are:

• NoFilter: matches all elements
• NamedFilter: Calls the ->getName() method on the container to compare in it’s predicate. SIMPLE and ARRAY will never match.
• YearFilter: Calls the ->getYear() method if the data is CONTAINER or uses the Modeltime to convert period index to year if the data is ARRAY and compares that year in it’s predicate. SIMPLE data will never match.
• IndexFilter: Computes the index offset of each element in an ARRAY or CONTAINER Data for comparison in it’s predicate. SIMPLE Data will never match.

### Predicates

A predicate is a way to test whether a year, or name, or index, etc matches a value the user was looking for. Currently predicates can only operate on string and int. If a predicate that is doing a string comparison is given an int to match (i.e. called from a YearFilter) it will always return false, and vice versa. The available predicates are:

 StringEquals string Tests if the proposition exactly matches a string value. StringRegexMatches string Tests if the proposition matches a regular expression in the egrep notation. IntEquals int Tests if the proposition exactly matches an int value. IntGreaterThan int Tests if the proposition is strictly greater than an int value. IntGreaterThanEq int Tests if the proposition is greater or equal to an int value. IntLessThan int Tests if the proposition is strictly less than an int value. IntLessThanEq int Tests if the proposition is less or equal to an int value.

### Constructing filters using a string notation

The parseFilterString utility allows users to construct filters using a convenient text notation, instead of constructing them manually. The rules for constructing the string are:

• Separate steps with /. Each step matches a data name. E.g., region/sector.
• A filter object can optionally be specified inside square brackets. E.g., /ghg[NamedFilter,StringEquals,CO2]
• All characters in a filter step up to the opening bracket assumed to the data name. (ghg in the example)
• All characters in between the ‘[’ and ‘]’ (if they exist) are split by ‘,’. In the example the elements would be NamedFilter, StringEquals, and CO2.
• The first element is the Filter
• Unless the filter is a NoFilter, there must be a total of three elements. Note it is an error to use NoFilter and supply predicate values as well.
• The second element is a predicate predicate.
• The third element is the value to match in the predicate.
• A // can be used to cause the next filter step to match an arbitrary number of levels (including zero) down the tree. E.g., sector//technology.

## Writing New GCAM Components

When developing new C++ classes for GCAM, it is important to make them compatible with GCAM Fusion. The next few sections explain how GCAM Fusion is put together, why it was done that way, and what this means for developing new C++ classes.

### Background and rationale

To accomplish our goals set out earlier for coming up with a high level API for implementing two-way feedbacks with GCAM we need to:

• Provide a way to traverse the heirarchical GCAM strucuture from a high level.
• Avoid forcing users to become familiar with the internals of GCAM, instead leveraging their knowledge of the XML strucuture.
• Avoid putting too much burden on GCAM developers to maintain the API when developing new capabilities.

Our first challenge is that, while we currently have a mapping from XML name to data objects (such as XMLParse, toInputXML, or XMLDB output), it is mostly a manual process replicated in EACH of these cases where it is needed. It would be better if we associated that name just one time together with the declartion of the variable.

We can illustrate this with a pseudocode example. C++ only needs to know what type the data member is and what you will call it in your C++ code, and you specify these things in a member declaration:

class Sector {
//! Sector name
string, mName
//! Sector price by period updated with solution prices.
PeriodVector<double>, mPrice
//! subsector objects
vector<Subsector*>, mSubsectors
}


For our purposes we want to add an XML – or user readable name. We’d like to do something like this, but C++ doesn’t allow it:

// Not valid C++
class Sector {
//! Sector name
string, mName, "name"
//! Sector price by period updated with solution prices.
PeriodVector<double>, mPrice, "price"
//! subsector objects
vector<Subsector*>, mSubsectors, "subsector"
}


In addition to the names, we need to be able to loop over the data members so that we could search for some particular member variable.  We need to tie each of these varaibles together so we can know which variables to loop over:

class Sector {
DEFINE_DATA(                   // Put all of the member variables in a structure we can iterate over.
//! Sector name
string, mName, "name"
//! Sector price by period updated with solution prices.
PeriodVector<double>, mPrice, "price"
//! subsector objects
vector<Subsector*>, mSubsectors, "subsector"
)
}


We also need to be able to know that “subsector” is actually a container of data itself and not just some simple data object.  Thus these containers are identified by name or year, such as /subsector[@name='coal'].  In fact it might be useful to note that the prices too can be filtered too even though it is not a container, such as /price[@year=2010]:

class Sector {
DEFINE_DATA(
//! Sector name
DEFINE_VARIABLE( SIMPLE, string, mName, "name" ),
//! Sector price by period updated with solution prices.
DEFINE_VARIABLE( ARRAY, PeriodVector<double>, mPrice, "price" ),
//! subsector objects
DEFINE_VARIABLE( CONTAINER, vector<Subsector*>, mSubsectors, "subsector" )
)
}


Class inheritance presents an extra challenge. Each subclass is allowed to define its own list of data, which is cumulative with the data defined by its class ancestors.

class PassThroughSector: public Sector {
// Because a PassThroughSector is also a sector, it has all of the members
// of a sector, plus the ones we're about to define:
DEFINE_DATA(
//! The appropriate sector name for which's marginal revenue should be used
//! when calculating fixed output.
DEFINE_VARIABLE( SIMPLE, string, mMarginalRevenueSector, "marginal-revenue-sector" )
)
}


In order to treat these subclasses properly, GCAM Fusion will have to splice the lists of data from all the classes in the hierarchy together at run time.  Therefore, we need additional tags to provide the information it needs to do that.

class PassThroughSector: public Sector {
DEFINE_DATA_WITH_PARENT(
Sector,
//! The appropriate sector name for which's marginal revenue should be used
//! when calculating fixed output.
DEFINE_VARIABLE( SIMPLE, string, mMarginalRevenueSector, "marginal-revenue-sector" )
)
}


### Implementation

The structures in the previous section give us almost all of what we need, but they aren’t actually valid C++. To get compilable code out of this we define a series of macros and use some template meta programming to transform these data definitions into the valid, yet much more, C++ syntax during the compiler’s preprocessing step. The source code at the end of the previous section gets preprocessed into code that looks like this:

class Sector {
typedef boost::fusion::vector<Data<string, SIMPLE>, Data<PeriodVector<double>, ARRAY>, Data<vector<Subsector*>, CONTAINER> > DataVectorType;
DataVectorType generateDataVector() {
return DataVectorType( Data<string, SIMPLE>( mName, "name" ), Data<PeriodVector<double>, ARRAY>( mPrice, "price" ), Data<vector<Subsector*>, CONTAINER>( mSubsectors, "subsector" ) );
}

string mName;
PeriodVector<double> mPrice;
vector<Subsector*> mSubsectors;
}


To be clear, all of the code in this block is generated automatically from the input in the previous block; developers never have to handle it directly; they’ll be using the constructs from the last section.

You will notice that we use such classes as Data<string, SIMPLE> and Data<Subsector*, CONTAINER>.  These are just helper structs to let us tie together user facing names as well as potentially other meta data with a reference to the actual data being contained (such as string or Subsector*). Here is how they are defined:

/*!
* \brief Basic structure for holding data members for GCAM classes.
* \details The idea behind this structure is that every data member
*          has two important properties: the data itself and a name
*          used to refer to it (e.g., in XML inputs).  In addition
*          there may be some additional compile time meta data that
*          would be useful to generate code or search by in GCAM
*          Fusion such as the data type or some combination from the
*          enumeration DataFlags.
*          This structure makes all of those available for inspection
*          by other objects and functions.
*/
template<typename T, int DataFlagsDefinition>
struct Data {
/*! \note The Data struct does not manage any of it's member variables and
*        instead simply holds reference to some original source.
*/
virtual ~Data() { }

/*!
* \brief The human readable name for this data.
*/
const char* mDataName;

/*!
* \brief A reference to the actual data stored.
*/
T& mData;

/*!
* \brief Type for this data item
*/
typedef T value_type;

/*!
* \brief A constexpr (compile time) function that checks if a given aDataFlag
*        matches any of the flags set set in DataFlagsDefinition.
* \param aDataFlag A Flag that may be some combination of the flags declared
*                  in the enumeration DataFlags.
* \return True if aTypeFlag was set in the data definition flags used to
*         define this data structure.
*/
static constexpr bool hasDataFlag( const int aDataFlag ) {
return ( ( aDataFlag & ~DataFlagsDefinition ) == 0 );
}

/*!
* \pre All Data definitions must at the very least be tagged as SIMPLE,
*      ARRAY, or CONTAINER.
*/
static_assert( hasDataFlag( SIMPLE ) || hasDataFlag( ARRAY ) || hasDataFlag( CONTAINER ),
"Invalid Data definition: failed to declare the kind of data." );
};


Then the type DataVectorType is a special kind of vector, one that can hold data of varying types, which can be looped over to process data in bulk. These special types of vectors are provided by the Boost Fusion library, which is where GCAM Fusion gets its name. Besides providing providing storage for mixed-type data, these “fusion” vectors allow us to perform algorithms at both compile time and run time.

Note that an instance of the DataVectorType is only created if the generateDatatVector() method is called (which should typically only be called through GCAM Fusion via ExpandDataVector) thus there is no runtime overhead penalty imposed on GCAM except when calling GCAMFusion to search for data.  In addition this implies that all of the changes required to allow for GCAM Fusion need only to be made in the header files by declaring variables as described above.

## What to know when writing or updating a GCAM class

As mentioned earlier GCAM Fusion changes the way we declare member variables for GCAM classes.  Some of these changes are simply to associate meta information that the GCAM Fusion tools can utilize to search and traverse the GCAM objects.  Other changes are actually just to ensure we have a uniform approach so that we may generate as much boiler plate code as possible without the need to special case.  Note while it is possible to not follow or utilize and of the GCAM Fusion tools and coding standards and still create valid and usable GCAM objects it is highly discouraged. Although GCAM Fusion was originally developed to facilitate model coupling and feedbacks, we can (and, in development versions of the model, do) take advantage of GCAM Fusion to provide software infrastructure such as automatically generating all XML parsing code, or make several copies of a running GCAM memory space to allow for parallel computation.

### Make all DATA definitions protected:

All member variable definitions should be protected instead of private.  It may be the case that PassThroughSector should not have access to change the mPrice of the Sector base class.   Unfortunately if we want to generically join the Sector and PassThroughSector data vectors for introspection via GCAM Fusion the PassThroughSector needs access to the entire Sector data vector.

### Using the DEFINE_DATA macros:

We provide a utility header #include "util/base/include/data_definition_util.h" that defines the all of the tools for defining data members.  Generally these will be instantiated by using the following Macros:

#### DEFINE_DATA( … ) and DEFINE_DATA_WITH_PARENT( … )

These calls are used to wrap all of the class data member definitions.  A user must use the DEFINE_DATA_WITH_PARENT for any class that is derived from a base class.  Even if that base class is abstract with no data members.  The very first argument to the DEFINE_DATA_WITH_PARENT is the name of the direct parent of this subclass for instance:

class Technology: public ITechnology {
protected:
// Define data such that introspection utilities can process the data from this
// subclass together with the data members of the parent classes.
DEFINE_DATA_WITH_PARENT(
ITechnology,
...
)
};

class TranTechnology : public Technology {
protected:
DEFINE_DATA_WITH_PARENT(
Technology,
...
)
};


A user then would use DEFINE_DATA in the base class even if it is not going to define and data members.  The first argument to DEFINE_DATA must be a list of the name of the class then all possible subclasses of the class.  Note that classes that do not have any classes derive from them will still use this method and the subclass list will only contain itself.

// Need to forward declare the subclasses as well.
class Technology;
class DefaultTechnology;
class IntermittentTechnology;
class WindTechnology;
class SolarTechnology;
class NukeFuelTechnology;
class TranTechnology;
class AgProductionTechnology;
class PassThroughTechnology;
class UnmanagedLandTechnology;
class EmptyTechnology;

class ITechnology: public IParsedComponent, private boost::noncopyable {
protected:
DEFINE_DATA(
/* Declare all subclasses of ITechnology to allow automatic traversal of the
* hierarchy under introspection.
*/
DEFINE_SUBCLASS_FAMILY( ITechnology, Technology, DefaultTechnology, IntermittentTechnology,
WindTechnology, SolarTechnology, NukeFuelTechnology, TranTechnology,
AgProductionTechnology, PassThroughTechnology, UnmanagedLandTechnology,
EmptyTechnology )
)
};


Within the DEFINE_DATA* sections after the declarations related to the subclass tree navigation are the actual data member definitions.  They are listed one after the other separated by commas.  Each definition will use one of the following Macros depending on the nature of that data definition:

class Sector {
protected:
DEFINE_DATA(
/* Declare all subclasses of Sector to allow automatic traversal of the
* hierarchy under introspection.
*/
DEFINE_SUBCLASS_FAMILY( Sector, SupplySector, AgSupplySector, ExportSector,
PassThroughSector ),

//! Sector name
DEFINE_VARIABLE( SIMPLE, "name", mName, std::string ),

//! subsector objects
DEFINE_VARIABLE( CONTAINER, "subsector", mSubsectors, std::vector<Subsector*> ),

//! Sector price by period updated with solution prices.
DEFINE_VARIABLE( ARRAY, "price", mPrice, objects::PeriodVector<double> ),

//! The discrete choice model used to calculate sector shares.
DEFINE_VARIABLE( CONTAINER, "discrete-choice-function", mDiscreteChoiceModel, IDiscreteChoice* )

)
};


#### DEFINE_VARIABLE with flag SIMPLE

This is used to define a member variable that is just a piece of data such as ints, double, string, Value, etc.  More directly, you would want to use this definition tag if the member variable does not contain more data (i.e. /price/logit-exponent isn’t valid) or can’t be filtered (i.e. /name[@year=2020] isn’t valid).

#### DEFINE_VARIABLE with flag ARRAY

This is used to define a member variable that is an array of simple data such as PeriodVector<Value> or vector<int>, etc.  More directly, you want to use this definition tag if the member variable does not contain more data (i.e. /price/logit-exponent isn’t valid) but can be filtered (i.e. /price[@year=2020] is valid).

#### DEFINE_VARIABLE with flag CONTAINER

This is used to define a member variable that is a container of more data such as Region, Sector, etc (i.e. /discrete-choice-function/logit-exponent is valid).  Note that the variable definition may be a vector, such as with subsector or just a single object such as with discrete-choice-function.  We just use the CONTAINER tag to handle both cases.  The reason is for container thery may be filtered by NamedFilter or YearFilter.  If the data being held is vector<Subsector*> for instance this allows us to search only the one that matches the name: /subsector[@name='coal']/share-weight.  If the data isn’t a vector and just a single object it may still make sense to filter by name, such an example would be the climate model /climate-model[@name='hector'].

#### DEFINE_VARIABLE with flag SIMPLE | STATE or ARRAY | STATE

The data flags can be combined with the vertical bar operator | if associating more tags may be useful.  Note Data must be tagged with one of SIMPLEARRAY, or CONTAINER.  Currently there is only one other flag defined to combine with those other flags: STATE.  In fact it only makes sense to use STATE with SIMPLE or ARRAY.  You should add this flag to any Data definition who’s data will get set during a call to World::calc, as described in Centrally Managed State Variables.

### Some side effects from the way we have done the data definitions

No more use of smart pointers as data members

These were dropped because it made detecting what the actual data was much more difficult (i.e. the type I need to know is IDiscreteChoice* not std::auto_ptr<IDiscreteChoice*>).  I could try harder if we want to put these back in, it will result in a lot more template specialization and work arounds.  Also note std::auto_ptr is deprecated in favor of std::unique_ptr.

## Centrally Managed State Variables

A new feature that is enabled by GCAM Fusion, although otherwise unrelated, is tagging and collecting “state” variables into a central location where they can be managed for the purposes of partial derivative calculations.  By “state” variables we refer to any variable whose value gets set during a call to World::calc.  Such an example would be mPrice of the Sector class as the price of intermediate sectors are dynamically calculated as the share weighted cost of it’s competing inputs.

State variables are of interest since during partial derivative calculations we start from some “base” state, change just one price, re-run the model by calling World::calc with the new price, and record the change in all of the supplies/demands. Then we need to revert back to the base state before we can proceed with the next partial derivative. This state includes more than just the input prices; it also includes all of the intermediate calculations such as demands and market shares.

A naive approach would be to just call World::calc using the original prices from the “base” state.  However such a strategy would essentially double the number of computation required to calculate partial derivatives.  Instead GCAM has code to track and manage state to be able to quickly reset the “base” state when calculating partial derivatives.  However prior to GCAM Fusion this code was strewn throughout the code in many places:

• Each market had a “stored” price, supply, and demand and corresponding methods to store/restore them.
• Any GCAM object that needed to addToSupply/Demand would have to keep an additional “state” member variables to make the call to the market place: mLastCalcValue = marketplace->addToDemand( mName, aRegionName, annualServiceDemand, mLastCalcValue, aPeriod );
• Any other state would get lazily recalculated by marking at the Activity level a “stale” flag.  If a Demand Activity was still marked as stale when it needed to recalculate a partial derivative then it would be forced to recalculate it’s Price Activity.  A strategy which creates extra work and potentially easy to break/get wrong.

With the changes to central manage state that come along with GCAM Fusion we simplify this to:

• The centrally managed “scratch” chunk of memory gets copied over with the “base” chunk of memory.
• Any GCAM object that needed to addToSupply/Demand must do so with a Value member variable marked as STATEmarketplace->addToDemand( mName, aRegionName, mServiceDemands[ aPeriod ], aPeriod );

The new approach is simpler, and it’s easier to guarantee we didn’t miss something by using DEBUG_STATE.  In addition when running with GCAM Parallel enabled we can allocate a “scratch” space for every thread allowing for each of the ~470 partial derivative calculations to be calculated completely independently and in parallel from each other.  This gives us far greater parallelism than we had previously.

To make this work, developers must tag the Data definitions in classes they are writing with the STATE flag to indicate which member variables are part of the model state.  The type of these variables could in principle be any simple type or array of simple type; however, for simplicity and to provide an object that gives us an opportunity for indirection to swap out the actual location of the underlying data from a central location we have limited state variables to use the Value class:

DEFINE_VARIABLE( SIMPLE | STATE, "price", mPrice, Value )

or

DEFINE_VARIABLE( ARRAY | STATE, "emissions", mEmissions, objects::PeriodVector<Value> )

By adding the STATE tag it allows us to search, using GCAM Fusion, for all of the objects with that tag.  A new class ManageStateVaraibles is responsible doing the search as well as all of the other state maintenance as discussed below.  Note that state data is collected each period so as to keep the number of values to store and copy remains reasonable.  To do this we:

• Skip data that is in a Technology that is not operating or a Market not of the current year
• Data in a period vector are only collected for the current period.
• Data in a year vector (such as LUC emissions) for only the years in the current timestep.

Once we know how many state data there are in a period we can allocate space to store the centrally managed data in a two dimensional array.  The first dimension is an entry for each state variable.  The second dimension is for the states, where the first is the “base” state and the rest are “scratch”. Without parallel enabled there is just 1 scratch state. However, when parallel calculations are enabled there is one scratch space for each thread.

Since we need to be able to quickly copy over scratch state we need to store the data contigiously.  Thus in order to keep several copies of state and quickly replace it is important we keep that total number of state variables to a reasonable amount.  Currently we observe 300,000 to 700,000 double values depending on the model period which is ~ 2 - 5 MB worth of memory per scratch space.

After the central state memory is allocated we loop over each state Value and set a flag to indicate that it is active state and assign it an offset into the centrally managed state.  We also set static variable Value::sCentralValue to point to the centrally managed “base” state.  Thus the Value class will lookup the actual data using:

/*!
* \brief An accessor method to get at the actual data held in this class.
* \details This method will appropriately get the value locally or the centrally
*          managed state if the mIsStateCopy flag is set.
* \return A reference the the appropriate value represented by this class.
*/
inline double& Value::getInternal() {
return mIsStateCopy ?
#if !GCAM_PARALLEL_ENABLED
sCentralValue[mCentralValueIndex]
#else
sCentralValue.local()[mCentralValueIndex]
#endif
: mValue;
}


When it comes time to calculate partial derivatives Value::sCentralValue is reset to the “scratch” space (thus the reason to make it static so it may be quickly switched in all Values).  Before each partial is calculated the “scratch” array is copied over with the “base” array using the highly optimized function memcpy:

/*!
* \brief Copies the "base" state over the "scratch" space.
* \details This method is typically called before starting a partial derivative
*          calculation which will make changes in the "scratch" space.  Note when
*          GCAM_PARALLEL_ENABLED the appropriate "scratch" space to reset is identified
*          as the one assigned to the calling thread via the thread local Value::sCentralValue.
*/
void ManageStateVariables::copyState() {
#if !GCAM_PARALLEL_ENABLED
memcpy( mStateData[1], mStateData[0], (sizeof( double)) * mNumCollected );
#else
memcpy( Value::sCentralValue.local(), mStateData[0], (sizeof( double)) * mNumCollected );
#endif
}


Note that with GCAM parallel Value::sCentralValue is a thread local variable thus each variable can be indpendently set by each thread that is accessing that code.  What this means in practical terms is for instance that the electricity technology Gas CC could have calculated different costs at the same exact time depending on which computation thread is asking.

Once we are done solving the period the ManageStateVariables will loop back over each state Value and reset the mIsStateCopy flag and copy back the “base” state value for long term storage.  Also releasing the memory for the centrally managed state’s arrays.

#### Ensuring that no state variable is missed

We can check to make sure that not Data definitions were missed being tagged as “state” by enabling the preprocessor flag DEBUG_STATE which will enable checks to flag Values that are changed during a call to World::calc as well as other checks to ensure Values get collected / reset properly.

### ExpandDataVector

Generally developers will not need to call this method directly. Instead, it is used indirectly through searches via GCAM Fusion.  It is a utility for ensuring that we get the complete data vector from a data container taking into account the data vectors inherited from any base classes.  Expanding the full data vector is more tricky than it would first appear since we need to be able to determine which SubClass we are dealing with at runtime as we only ever store instances with the Base class pointer (this is typically accomplished with virtual methods). However the return type of each SubClass would be different for each SubClass. Thus we need to use a double dispatch based approach with a visitor that will collect the full data vector. In order for this visitor to be generic it needs to be templated however mixing virtual methods with templated argument is not allowed by the compiler due to possibly infinite method combinations.

### Factory

A generic templated factory that can create any member of a SubClassFamilyVector given the XML name.  This class is currently not used however could be employed to replace all of the various Factory singleton classes that currently exist in GCAM.  It would really be useful when/if we generate all XML Parsing code by the compiler.

## C++11/14 Features:

Some code written in GCAM Fusion take advantge of some new language features. While not always necessary they proved useful. Note this isn’t the full breadth of the new C++11/14 features, just the ones you may find in GCAM Fusion. In addtion there are some classes, such as regular expressions, which are also part of the new standard however I will not talk about them since it doesn’t change any language expressions that may be confusing to C++ coders.

### auto

You may see variables declared as the auto type. It is however not a type; instead, it allows the developer to elide the variable type and allow the compiler to set the appropriate type at compile time. If the compiler can’t figure it out unambigously then it will raise an error. This is particularly useful when dealing with templated typedefs and nested or derivived types, where the type defininitions can get quite complex. For example, it is easier to write and understand:

template<typename SomeKindOfArrayOfContainerType>
void someFunc(ContainerData<SomeKindOfArrayOfContainerType> aData ) {
// descriptive comment to tell use what is being decalared.
auto copyOfData = aData.mData.begin()->clone();
...
}


Than to write:

template<typename SomeKindOfArrayOfContainerType>
void someFunc(ContainerData<SomeKindOfArrayOfContainerType> aData ) {
typename boost::remove_ptr<ContainerData::value_type::value_type>::type copyOfData = aData.mData.begin()->clone();
...
}


### decltype(..)

The decltype declaraiton allows you to copy the type of some other variable. This is useful for deriving other types. For example, this declaration gives the const iterator associated with a container. It isn’t necessary to specify, or even know, the exact type of the container:

typename decltype( mSomeContainer )::const_iterator

### Using decltype in the return

For the same reason it is useful to take advantage of decltype you may want to take advantage in declaring a function return type based off of the argument passed in. To do this you need to use some slightly alternative syntax:

template<typename SomeVectorDef>
functionName( SomeVectorDef aVector ) -> decltype( aVector )::const_iterator {
return aVector.begin();
}


### Closures

Closures allow you to construct anonymous functions that capture variables from their immediate environment. They are especially useful in conjunction with algorithm templates from the std::algorithm library, such as find_if.

    int nsub = successors_subgraph.count();
typename groupset_t::iterator it_sg_ex_srcs =
find_if(subgroups.begin(), subgroups.end(),
[nsub] (const groupid_t &g) -> bool {return g.nodes().count() == nsub && g.type == linear;});


Likewise, when dealing with structures of unknown and differing types, as might happen when writing a template class or function, we need to use templated functors to deal with each different type:

struct Helper {
std::string mName;
Helper(std::string aName):mName(aName) { }
template<typename SomeClassType>
bool operator()( SomeClassType aClass ) {
return aClass->getName() == mName;
}
};
...
boost::fusion::vector<Sector, Subsector, ITechnology> vec(aSector, aSubsector, aTech);
Helper func(aName);
bool isNameCoal = boost::fusion::any(vec, func);


With closures this can be written more simply:

boost::fusion::vector<Sector, Subsector, ITechnology> vec(aSector, aSubsector, aTech);
bool isNameCoal = boost::fusion::any(vec,
[aName]( auto aClass ) -> bool {
return aClass->getName() == aName;
}
);


The values in the [ ] names the variables from the local scope to be made available in the closure.  Including an & in front of the variable indicates to pass by reference.  Simply providing the & indicates make available all local variables by reference.

### Foreach in C++

C++ introduced its version of foreach, which reduces the verbosity of looping over arrays of data. So instead of:

vector<ITechnology*> techs;
for( vector<ITechnology*>::const_iterator it = techs.begin(); it != techs.end(); ++it ) {
cout << (*it)->getCost() << endl;
}


or

vector<ITechnology*> techs;
for( sizt_t index = 0; index < tech.size(); ++index ) {
cout << techs[index]->getCost() << endl;
}


We can write:

vector<ITechnology*> techs;
for( const ITechnology* tech : techs ) {
cout << tech->getCost() << endl;
}


Note that although this kind of loop is often called a “foreach” loop, in C++ it is invoked with the for keyword.